Profilaxis Pre-Exposición, Ansiedad, Depresión y Satisfacción Sexual en Hombres que Tienen Sexo con Otros Hombres
PDF (English)

Cómo citar

Reiriz, M., Rodríguez-Expósito, B., Jiménez-García, A. J., Uceda, S., & Arias, N. (2023). Profilaxis Pre-Exposición, Ansiedad, Depresión y Satisfacción Sexual en Hombres que Tienen Sexo con Otros Hombres. Psicothema, 35(2). Recuperado a partir de


Antecedentes: El impacto de la profilaxis pre-exposición (PrEP) sobre la salud mental, así como en la satisfacción sexual y con la vida son aún desconocidas. Método: Analizamos 114 participantes VIH negativos de España con rango de edad [19-58 años], donde el 60,5% eran usuarios de PrEP (= 69) y el 39,5% no (= 45). Completaron cinco tests sobre la satisfacción sexual y con la vida, la depresión y la ansiedad. Realizamos correlaciones y análisis de regresión múltiple. Resultados: El uso de PrEP correlacionó con un incremento de la satisfacción sexual y con la vida. Mostraron una correlación negativa en depresión y ansiedad que no se observó en los no consumidores de PrEP. Los usuarios de PrEP más jóvenes mostraban puntuaciones más altas en ansiedad y más bajas en depresión que los de mayor edad. Los análisis de regresión jerárquica mostraron que el número de parejas sexuales fue un predictor importante en el grupo de PrEP para la NSSS. Conclusión: La correlación indirecta entre la satisfacción sexual, la depresión y los síntomas de ansiedad en los usuarios de PrEP, podría ser la base de los beneficios que la PrEP puede ofrecer a la vida sexual de los pacientes.

PDF (English)


Biello, K. B., Mimiaga, M. J., Valente, P. K., Saxena, N., & Bazzi, A. R. (2021). The past, present, and future of prep implementation among people who use drugs. Current HIV/AIDS reports, 18(4), 328–338.

Blackstock, O. J., Platt, J., Golub, S. A., Anakaraonye, A. R., Norton, B. L., Walters, S. M., Sevelius, J. M., & Cunningham, C. O. (2021). A pilot study to evaluate a novel pre-exposure prophylaxis peer outreach and navigation intervention for women at high risk for hiv infection. AIDS and behavior, 25(5), 1411–1422.

Bourne, A., Reid, D., Hickson, F., Torres-Rueda, S., & Weatherburn, P. (2014). The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

Bourne, A., Reid, D., Hickson, F., Torres-Rueda, S., & Weatherburn, P. (2015). Illicit drug use in sexual settings (‘chemsex’) and HIV/STI transmission risk behaviour among gay men in south London: findings from a qualitative study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 91(8), 564–568.

Brooks, R. A., Landovitz, R. J., Kaplan, R. L., Lieber, E., Lee, S. J., & Barkley, T. W. (2012). Sexual risk behaviors and acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in serodiscordant relationships: a mixed methods study. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 26(2), 87–94.

Calabrese, S. K., & Underhill, K. (2015). How stigma surrounding the use of HIV preexposure prophylaxis undermines prevention and pleasure: A call to destigmatize “truvada whores”. American Journal of Public Health, 105(10), 1960–1964.

Carneiro, P. B., Westmoreland, D. A., Patel, V. V., & Grov, C. (2021). Factors associated with being PrEP-naïve among a U.S. National cohort of former- PrEP and PrEP-naïve participants meeting objective criteria for PrEP care. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50(4), 1793–1803.

Castedo, A. L., & Santos, I. C. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) among HIV/AIDS patients. Psicothema, 20(4), 958– 963.

Chandler, C. J., Bukowski, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Hawk, M. E., Markovic, N., Stall, R. D., & Egan, J. E. (2020). Understanding the impact of a syndemic on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in a community-based sample of behaviorally PrEP-eligible BMSM in the United States. AIDS care, 32(5), 551–556.

Chou, R., Evans, C., Hoverman, A., Sun, C., Dana, T., Bougatsos, C., Grusing, S., & Korthuis, P. T. (2019). Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection: evidence report and systematic review for the US preventive services task force. JAMA, 321(22), 2214–2230.

Cusick, L., & Rhodes, T. (2000). Sustaining sexual safety in relationships: HIV positive people and their sexual partners. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 2(4), 473-487.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffi S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.

Diez-Quevedo, C., Rangil, T., Sanchez-Planell, L., Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2001). Validation and utility of the patient health questionnaire in diagnosing mental disorders in 1003 general hospital Spanish inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63(4), 679–686.

Dolling, D. I., Desai, M., McOwan, A., Gilson, R., Clarke, A., Fisher, M., Schembri, G., Sullivan, A. K., Mackie, N., Reeves, I., Portman, M., Saunders, J., Fox, J., Bayley, J., Brady, M., Bowman, C., Lacey, C. J., Taylor, S., White, D., … Nardone, A. (2016). An analysis of baseline data from the PROUD study: an open-label randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Trials, 17, Article 63.

Eaton, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Driffi D. D., Bukowski, L., Wilson, P. A., Stall, R. D., & POWER Study Team. (2017). A multi-US city assessment of awareness and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among black men and transgender women who have sex with men. Prevention Science: the Official Journal of The Society for Prevention Research, 18(5), 505–516.

Eaton, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Bukowski, L. A., Friedman, M. R., Chandler, C. J., Whitfi D. L., Sang, J. M., Stall, R. D., & POWER Study Team. (2018). Elevated HIV prevalence and correlates of PrEP use among a community sample of black men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 79(3), 339–346.

Escudero, D. J., Lurie, M. N., Kerr, T., Howe, C. J., & Marshall, B. D. (2014). HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for people who inject drugs: A review of current results and an agenda for future research. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 17(1), Article 18899.

Fernández-Rodríguez, C., Coto-Lesmes, R., Martínez-Loredo, V., & Cuesta- Izquierdo, M. (2022). Psychological inflexibility, anxiety and depression: The moderating role of cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and activation. Psicothema, 34(2), 240–248.

Friedman, M. R., Sang, J. M., Bukowski, L. A., Chandler, C. J., Egan, J. E., Eaton, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Ho, K., Raymond, H. F., & Stall, R. (2019). Prevalence and correlates of prep awareness and use among black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in the United States. AIDS and Behavior, 23(10), 2694–2705.

Gamarel, K. E., & Golub, S. A. (2015). Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships. Annals of behavioral medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 49(2), 177–186.

Gámez-Guadix, M., Mateos, E., Wachs, S., & Blanco, M. (2022). Self-Harm on the Internet Among Adolescents: Prevalence and association with depression, anxiety, family cohesion, and social resources. Psicothema, 34(2), 233–239.

García-Campayo, J., Zamorano, E., Ruiz, M. A., Pardo, A., Pérez-Páramo, M., López-Gómez, V., Freire, O., & Rejas, J. (2010). Cultural adaptation into Spanish of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale as a screening tool. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 8, Article 8.

Godin, G., Naccache, H., & Pelletier, R. (2000). Seeking medical advice if HIV symptoms are suspected. Qualitative study of beliefs among HIV-negative gay men. Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien, 46, 861–868.

Golub, S. A., Starks, T. J., Payton, G., & Parsons, J. T. (2012). The critical role of intimacy in the sexual risk behaviors of gay and bisexual men. AIDS and behavior, 16(3), 626–632.

Golub, S. A., Gamarel, K. E., Rendina, H. J., Surace, A., & Lelutiu-Weinberger,

C. L. (2013). From efficacy to effectiveness: Facilitators and barriers to PrEP acceptability and motivations for adherence among MSM and transgender women in New York City. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 27(4), 248–254.

Grant, R. M., Lama, J. R., Anderson, P. L., McMahan, V., Liu, A. Y., Vargas, L., Goicochea, P., Casapía, M., Guanira-Carranza, J. V., Ramirez-Cardich, M. E., Montoya-Herrera, O., Fernández, T., Veloso, V. G., Buchbinder, S. P., Chariyalertsak, S., Schechter, M., Bekker, L. G., Mayer, K. H., Kallás, E. G., … Glidden, D. V. (2010). Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. The New England journal of medicine, 363(27), 2587–2599.

Hammack, P. L., Toolis, E. E., Wilson, B., Clark, R. C., & Frost, D. M. (2019). Making meaning of the impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on public health and sexual culture: Narratives of three generations of gay and bisexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(4), 1041–1058.

Hayes, A. F., & Coutts, J. J. (2020). Use omega rather than Cronbach’s alpha for estimating reliability. But... Communication Methods and Measures, 14(1), 1-24.

Hojilla, C. J., Koester, K. A., Cohen, S. E., Buchbinder, S., Ladzekpo, D., Matheson, T., & Liu, A. Y. (2016). Sexual behavior, risk compensation, and HIV prevention strategies among participants in the San Francisco PrEP demonstration project: A qualitative analysis of counseling notes. AIDS and Behavior, 20(7), 1461–1469.

Hunsley, J., & Meyer, G. (2003). The incremental validity of psychological testing and assessment: Conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues. Psychological Assessment, 15(4), 446-455.

Iniesta, C., Coll, P., Barberá, M. J., García Deltoro, M., Camino, X., Fagúndez, G., Díaz, A., Polo, R., & Spanish Working Group for PrEP. (2021). Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis programme in Spain. Feasibility of four diff delivery models. PloS ONE, 16(2), Article e0246129.

Kellerman, S. E., Lehman, J. S., Lansky, A., Stevens, M. R., Hecht, F. M., Bindman, A. B., & Wortley, P. M. (2002). HIV testing within at-risk populations in the United States and the reasons for seeking or avoiding HIV testing. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 31(2), 202–210.

Krakower, D. S., Mimiaga, M. J., Rosenberger, J. G., Novak, D. S., Mitty, J. A., White, J. M., & Mayer, K. H. (2012). Limited awareness and low immediate uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men using an internet social networking site. PloS ONE, 7(3), Article e33119.

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606–613.

Laborde, N. D., Kinley, P. M., Spinelli, M., Vittinghoff E., Whitacre, R., Scott, H. M., & Buchbinder, S. P. (2020). Understanding PrEP persistence: Provider and patient perspectives. AIDS and Behavior, 24(9), 2509–2519.

Liu, Y., Brown, L., Przybyla, S., Bleasdale, J., Mitchell, J., & Zhang, C. (2021). Characterizing racial differences of mental health burdens, psychosocial determinants, and impacts on HIV prevention outcomes among young men who have sex with men: A community-based study in two US cities. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 9, 1114–1124.

Lorenc, T., Marrero-Guillamón, I., Llewellyn, A., Aggleton, P., Cooper, C., Lehmann, A., & Lindsay, C. (2011). HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): Systematic review of qualitative evidence. Health Education Research, 26(5), 834–846.

Mabire, X., Puppo, C., Morel, S., Mora, M., Rojas-Castro, D., Chas, J., Cua, E., Pintado, C., Suzan-Monti, M., Spire, B., Molina, J. M., & Préau, M. (2019). pleasure and PrEP: Pleasure-Seeking plays a role in prevention choices and could lead to PrEP initiation. American Journal of Men’s Health, 13(1), Article 1557988319827396.

Maxwell, S., Shahmanesh, M., & Gafos, M. (2019). Chemsex behaviours among men who have sex with men: A systematic review of the literature. The International journal on drug policy, 63, 74–89.

Maxwell, S., Gafos, M., Moncrieff M., Shahmanesh, M., & Stirrup, O. (2020). Pre-exposure prophylaxis use among men who have sex with men who have experienced problematic chemsex. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 31(5), 474–480.

Mitchell, J. W., Lee, J. Y., Woodyatt, C., Bauermeister, J., Sullivan, P., & Stephenson, R. (2016). HIV-negative male couples’ attitudes about pre- exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. AIDS Care, 28(8), 994–999.

Moeller, R. W., Seehuus, M., Wahl, L., & Gratch, I. (2020). Use of PrEP, sexual behaviors and mental health correlates in a sample of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 24(1), 94-111.

Montgomery, M. C., Ellison, J., Chan, P. A., Harrison, L., & van den Berg, J.

J. (2021). Sexual satisfaction with daily oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay and bisexual men at two urban PrEP clinics in the United States: An observational study. Sexual Health, 18(4), 319–326.

Mutchler, M. G., McDavitt, B., Ghani, M. A., Nogg, K., Winder, T. J., & Soto,

J. K. (2015). Getting PrEPared for HIV prevention navigation: Young black gay men talk about HIV prevention in the biomedical era. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 29(9), 490–502.

Ni, Z., Altice, F. L., Wickersham, J. A., Copenhaver, M. M., DiDomizio, E. E., Nelson, L. E., & Shrestha, R. (2021). Willingness to initiate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and its use among opioid-dependent individuals in drug treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 219, Article 108477.

Nunn, A. S., Brinkley-Rubinstein, L., Oldenburg, C. E., Mayer, K. H., Mimiaga, M., Patel, R., & Chan, P. A. (2017). Defi the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis care continuum. AIDS, 31(5), 731–734.

Okafor, C. N., Hucks-Ortiz, C., Hightow-Weidman, L. B., Magnus, M., Emel, L., Beauchamp, G., Kuo, I., Hendrix, C., Mayer, K. H., & Shoptaw, S. J. (2020). Brief Report: Associations between self-reported substance use behaviors and PrEP acceptance and adherence among black MSM in the HPTN 073 study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 85(1), 23–29.

Parsons, J. T., Lelutiu-Weinberger, C., Botsko, M., & Golub, S. A. (2013). Predictors of day-level sexual risk for young gay and bisexual men. AIDS and Behavior, 17(4), 1465–1477.

Quinn, K. G., Christenson, E., Sawkin, M. T., Hacker, E., & Walsh, J. L. (2020). The unanticipated benefits of PrEP for young black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 24(5), 1376– 1388.

Reis, M., Ramiro, L., De Matos, M. G., Diniz, J. A., & Simões, C. (2011). Information and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in Portuguese adolescents: State of art and changes in a four year period. Psicothema, 23(2), 260-266.

Rodger, A. J., Cambiano, V., Bruun, T., Vernazza, P., Collins, S., Degen, O., Corbelli, G. M., Estrada, V., Geretti, A. M., Beloukas, A., Raben, D., Coll, P., Antinori, A., Nwokolo, N., Rieger, A., Prins, J. M., Blaxhult, A., Weber, R., Van Eeden, A., … Lundgren, J. (2019). Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodiff gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): Final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. Lancet, 393(10189), 2428– 2438.

Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. SAGE Publications.

Roux, P., Fressard, L., Suzan-Monti, M., Chas, J., Sagaon-Teyssier, L., Capitant, C., Meyer, L., Tremblay, C., Rojas-Castro, D., Pialoux, G., Molina, J. M., & Spire, B. (2018). Is on-demand HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis a suitable tool for men who have sex with men who practice chemsex? Results from a substudy of the ANRS-IPERGAY trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 79(2), Article e69–e75.

Siria, S., Echeburúa, E., & Amor, P. J. (2020). Characteristics and risk factors in juvenile sexual off Psicothema, 32(3), 314–321.

Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.

Storholm, E. D., Volk, J. E., Marcus, J. L., Silverberg, M. J., & Satre, D. D. (2017). Risk perception, sexual behaviors, and PrEP adherence among substance-using men who have sex with men: Aqualitative study. Prevention science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 18(6), 737–747.

Strizzi, J., Fernández-Agis, I., Alarcón-Rodríguez, R., & Parrón-Carreño, T. (2016). Adaptation of the new sexual satisfaction scale-short form into Spanish. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 42(7), 579-588.

Stulhofer, A., Busko, V., & Brouillard, P. (2010). Development and bicultural validation of the new sexual satisfaction scale. Journal of Sex Research, 47(4), 257–268.

Tomkins, A., George, R., & Kliner, M. (2019). Sexualised drug taking among men who have sex with men: A systematic review. Perspectives in Public Health, 139(1), 23–33.

Underhill, K., Operario, D., Mimiaga, M. J., Skeer, M. R., & Mayer, K. H. (2010). Implementation science of pre-exposure prophylaxis: Preparing for public use. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 7(4), 210–219.

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. (2018). Global HIV and AIDS statistics-fact sheet. United Nations.

Vázquez, C., Duque, A., & Hervás, G. (2013). Satisfaction with life scale in a representative sample of Spanish adults: Validation and normative data. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16, Article E82, 1-15.

Volk, J. E., Marcus, J. L., Phengrasamy, T., Blechinger, D., Nguyen, D. P., Follansbee, S., & Hare, C. B. (2015). No new HIV infections with increasing use of HIV preexposure prophylaxis in a clinical practice setting. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 61(10), 1601–1603.

Ware, N. C., Wyatt, M. A., Haberer, J. E., Baeten, J. M., Kintu, A., Psaros, C., Safren, S., Tumwesigye, E., Celum, C. L., & Bangsberg, D. R. (2012). What’s love got to do with it? Explaining adherence to oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-serodiscordant couples. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 59(5), 463–468.

Watson, C. W., Pasipanodya, E., Savin, M. J., Ellorin, E. E., Corado, K. C., Flynn, R. P., Opalo, C., Lampley, E., Henry, B. L., Blumenthal, J., Bolan, R., Morris, S., & Moore, D. J. (2020). Barriers and facilitators to PrEP initiation and adherence among transgender and gender non-binary individuals in Southern California. AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 32(6), 472–485.

Weinfurt, K. P., Lin, L., Bruner, D. W., Cyranowski, J. M., Dombeck, C. B., Hahn, E. A., Jeffery, D. D., Luecht, R. M., Magasi, S., Porter, L. S., Reese,J. B., Reeve, B. B., Shelby, R. A., Smith, A. W., Willse, J. T., & Flynn, K. E. (2015). Development and initial validation of the PROMIS(®) sexual function and satisfaction measures version 2.0. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(9), 1961–1974.

Whitfi T., Jones, S. S., Wachman, M., Grov, C., Parsons, J. T., & Rendina, H. J. (2019). The impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use on sexual anxiety, satisfaction, and esteem among gay and bisexual men. Journal of Sex Research, 56(9), 1128–1135.

Wood, S. M., Morales, K. H., Metzger, D., Davis, A., Fiore, D., Petsis, D., Barnett, K., Koenig, H. C., Dowshen, N., Gross, R., & Frank, I. (2021). Mental health, social influences and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization among men and transgender individuals screening for hiv prevention trials. AIDS and Behavior, 25(2), 524–531.

Yang, C., Krishnan, N., Kelley, E., Dawkins, J., Akolo, O., Redd, R., Olawale, A., Max-Browne, C., Johnsen, L., Latkin, C., Page, K. R., & Davey-Rothwell, M. (2020). Beyond HIV prevention: A qualitative study of patient-reported outcomes of PrEP among MSM patients in two public STD clinics in Baltimore. AIDS Care, 32(2), 238–241.

Young, L. B., Lalley-Chareczko, L., Clark, D., Ramos, M. T., Nahan, R. A., Troutman, G. S., Cantor, R., DiFlavis, L., & Koenig, H. C. (2020). Correlation of pre-exposure prophylaxis adherence to a mental health diagnosis or experience of childhood trauma in high-risk youth. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 31(5), 440–446.

Zapata, J. P., Petroll, A., de St Aubin, E., & Quinn, K. (2022). Perspectives on Social Support and stigma in PrEP-related care among gay and bisexual men: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Homosexuality, 69(2), 254–276.