Energy consumption, economic growth, foreign direct investment and globalization causality nexus in OECD countries: a symbolic transfer entropy analysis


  • Ahdi Noomen AJMI Department of Business Administration, College of Science and Humanities in Slayel, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, KSA.
  • Seyi Saint Akadiri Central Bank of Nigeria



In this paper, we investigate the validity and usefulness of the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) test for longitudinal data by examining causality relationships among foreign direct investment, energy consumption, globalization and economic growth respectively, between the periods 1970-2015 using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries as a case study. Also, a comparison to validate or contrast with other existing studies results generated using other forms of causality test is given. Our findings suggest that the STE causality test is suitable approach for our OECD panel of countries.


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How to Cite

AJMI, A. N., & Akadiri, S. S. (2021). Energy consumption, economic growth, foreign direct investment and globalization causality nexus in OECD countries: a symbolic transfer entropy analysis. Economics and Business Letters, 10(4), 408-415.