Gender disparity effect among financially included (and excluded) women in Middle East and North Africa


  • Antonella Francesca Cicchiello Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
  • Amirreza Kazemikhasragh University Program of Studies on Asia and Africa (PUEAA), National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico;
  • Anna Maria Fellegara
  • Stefano Monferrà



Gender in financial inclusion is an evolving field of research. This study uses the World Bank’s Global Findex database, along with probit models, to investigate the presence of gender inequality on financial inclusion and its causes. In the Middle East and North Africa samples, we present new evidence of lower women’s financial inclusion. Being a man, older, well-educated and with a high-income increases the likelihood of being financially included. The findings of this study support policymaker in defining policies to promote financial inclusion in the Middle East and North Africa. Increasing the level of financial inclusion enhances the level of official savings in countries, which in turn promotes development.


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How to Cite

Cicchiello, A. F., Kazemikhasragh, A., Fellegara, A. M., & Monferrà, S. (2021). Gender disparity effect among financially included (and excluded) women in Middle East and North Africa. Economics and Business Letters, 10(4), 342–348.