The doping dilemma is not the only dilemma in sport


  • Kjetil Haugen



Game Theory, Prisoner's Dilemma, Economics of Doping, Technological Change


This article investigates training in sports and argues (and demonstrates) that training (game- theoretically) works exactly as doping do. That is, the Nash equilibrium is, under reasonable assumptions, a Prisoner’s Dilemma outcome. Furthermore, several other performance improving categories within sport are examined, and proven to behave similarly. Finally, a link to general competitive economic activity is examined and proven NOT (necessarily) to have similar characteristics. The article also discusses (initially) the Prisoner’s Dilemma game and its lack of a sensible definition. Such a definition is proposed, although this proposition is not considered the main finding in the paper.


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How to Cite

Haugen, K. (2023). The doping dilemma is not the only dilemma in sport. Economics and Business Letters, 12(1), 40–48.