Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate teacher training for inclusion: the CEFI-R
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Francisca, Elena, Begoña, & Raquel. (2019). Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate teacher training for inclusion: the CEFI-R. Aula Abierta, 48(2), 229–238.


An inclusive teacher is one who considers diversity as a positive feature that enriches education and who, therefore, adapts the teaching methodologies to the learning characteristics of each one of the students and provides support to all their needs. Many research projects emphasize the idea of how students´ success depends largely on the teachers' preparation and their competencies and attitudes. The goal of this work is to present the review and resulting modification of an instrument to assess teacher training needs for inclusion (CEFI-R). For this purpose, we used a sample of 202 Spanish teachers with experience in all educational stages (preschool, primary and secondary education). The validation process is described (the process of item inclusion and exclusion, the factorial analysis in order to analyze the structure of the questionnaire and the internal consistency of the scale) which resulted in the development of a 19-item questionnaire grouped into 4 inclusion indicators: conception of diversity, methodology, supports and community participation. We can come to the conclusion that the CEFI-R is a multidimensional tool that allow us to analyze the main aspects in which teachers are less prepared to meet the diverse needs and characteristics of their students.
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